In "Negro President," the best-selling historian Garry Wills explores a controversial and neglected aspect of Thomas Jefferson
's presidency: it was achieved by virtue of slave "representation," and conducted to preserve that advantage.
Wills goes far beyond the recent revisionist debate over Jefferson's own slaves
and his relationship with Sally Heming to look at the political relationship between the president and slavery. Jefferson won the election of 1800
with Electoral College
votes derived from the three-fifths representation of slaves, who could not vote but who were partially counted as citizens. That count was known as "the slave power" granted to southern states, and it made some Federalists call Jefferson the Negro President -- one elected only by the slave count's margin.
Probing the heart of Jefferson's presidency, Wills reveals how the might of the slave states was a concern behind Jefferson's most important decisions and policies, including his strategy to expand the nation west. But the president met with resistance: Timothy Pickering, now largely forgotten, was elected to Congress to wage a fight against Jefferson and the institutions that supported him. Wills restores Pickering and his allies' dramatic struggle to our understanding of Jefferson and the creation of the new nation.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, founded the Democratic-Republican Party and was the third President. The election of 1800 resulted in the election of the Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson, sympathetic to France and hostile to aristocracy. American slaves were almost entirely African and formed the basis of the cotton economy of the South until the Civil War.